- August 1914
- Bullets, Bottles and Gardenias
- Gringo Rebel
- A Fine Fellow
- Timeline of Revolution
- Battle of Tierra Blanca
- Gray Automobile Affair
- Gringo Rebel
- Gun Running
- John Reed
- Lifelong Friends
- Massacre of Huitzilac
- Nordenskjold Lives!
- Pancho Villa
- Soldier Under 13 Flags
- The Devil's Dictionary
- Villa's Swedish Gunner
- Yaquis capture Acaponeta
- ¡Vamanos Con Pancho Villa!
- Centennial Edition
- Veracruz Expedition
Unexpected resistance to the April 1914 U.S. Invasion of Veracruz
Protecting American interests in strategic materials such as oil, rubber, copper and zinc, was, according to the reasonable account of John Mason Hart, the Wilson administration's reasoning for invasion of Veracurz. The administration sought to bring about a beneficial stability through a policy of regime change.
However, it wasn't the regime of Victoriano Huerta, targeted for change, that was actual problem for the American holders of Mexican properties, but rather, the expropriations of Pancho Villa. Texas and Wall Street interests were growing worried as Villa's influence grew in the vicinity of Tampico. The objective of the Wilson policy was not so much the overthrow of Huerta, but to insure that Venustiano Carranza came out on top.
The Wilson administration's never contemplated anything beyond controlling the gulf coast arms trade. The military objective of the April 1914 US invasion of Veracruz was:
“to influence the outcome of the Mexican struggle by controlling military supplies while exposing American servicemen to a minimum of risk. —Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War
To the extent that this was actual objective, they largely succeeded in controlling the arms supplies, and did effectively influence the outcome of the Mexican revolution in favor of Carranza, but fell short on keeping US soldiers out of harms way. Everything did not work out as they had planned.
Mexican Navel Cadet Virgilio Uribe, immortalized for his defiant resistance.
The Americans thought that they had things under control when a Mexican Army commander was convinced to withdraw in advance of the US landing, and in fact, the Americans did not have to tangle with Huerta's federal troops. But they underestimated the depth of Mexican patriotism and were stunned by the stiff resistance put up by Mexican Navel cadets and Veracruz citizens.
Citizens of Veracruz resist the US invasion